Soap

When used for cleaning, soap allows otherwise insoluble particles to become soluble in water and then be rinsed away.

For example:  oil/fat is insoluble in water, but when a couple of drops of dish soap are added to the mixture, the oil/fat apparently disappears.

The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic (water-attracting) groups on the outside and encasing alipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble.

Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water. Synthetic detergents operate by similar mechanisms to soap.

The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon.
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon.
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon.
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon.
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon.
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon.

 

A formula for soap consisting of water, alkali, and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC.

In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid.Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. 

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